Damian Anderson

Professor James Earhart

Soci 216

28, February 2016


If a survey would take places measuring the benefits of poverty, it is presumed that a majority would like insist that poverty isn’t a beneficial circumstance. There are plenty of arguments on why people are in poverty but the ideas and solutions to take one out of poverty are scarce in comparison. It is better to skimpily identify the problem and then focusing on solving the problems, and that should remain to be the focus.

There are three types of poverty. First there is absolute poverty. This type of poverty, mostly seen in other countries, “refers to the lack of resources necessary for well-being” (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 174). Second there is relative poverty which is the lack resources compares to other populations (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 174). Thirdly, there is extreme poverty where people are living on less than $1.25 a day. (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 174).  Generally, povery in America is determined on whether a house hold spends 1/3 of their income on food however measuring poverty can vary depending on the number of members in a household (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 175).

As with any social problem there are different perspectives when addressing the problem. Structural-functionalist view poverty as the result of “economic institutions that fail to provide sufficient jobs and pay” as well as educational institution failing to equip individuals with the needed skills for employment (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 176).  Karl Marx presented a conflict theory regarding poverty, as it comes from the business owners’ domination over the workers (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 177). Symbolic interactionist view that the label of “poor” will give one an identity of being lazy, immoral, irresponsible, and personally deficient (Mooney, Knox, Schacht, 179).

Rebecca Vallas and Melissa Boteach proposed 10 ways of solving the problem of poverty; however some have some issues themselves. A few of the ways they suggested included: creating more jobs, raise the minimum wage, increase the earned income tax credit for childless workers, support pay equity, provide paid leave and paid sick days, establish work schedules that work, and expand Medicaid (Vallas, Boteach, The Top 10 Solutions to Cut Poverty and Grow the Middle Class). The solutions sound great on paper; however it would require much government overseer for these ideas to work, however some seem problematic. For example, raising minimum wage will work momentarily, but once cost of living is adjusted a larger poverty group is born. Work schedules that work is also a foolish idea as many business (fast food restraints for example) are open nearly 24 hours a day, thus shifts have to vary among coworkers.

The solution to poverty is education and skills. Once someone gains a proper education the doors open wide for potential opportunities. However, not everyone is going to have available access to furthering educations due to high school costs (discussed in an early paper). There are organizations that help assist those stuck in poverty meet certain needs.  Feeding America, largest domestic hunger relief program, provides meals to more than 200 food banks in all of the 50 states (Rozzi, Top 10 Non-Profits Fighting Poverty). Another similar organization is Meals on Wheels, whom “provide visionary leadership and professional training and to develop partnerships that will ensure the provision of quality nutrition services to seniors in need (Rozzi, Top 10 Non-Profits Fighting Poverty).  Though providing nutrition and meals may be a temporary solution to what seems like a permanent problem, it is a start.

What is the solution to poverty? The solution to nearly every problem faced is proper education. When we are properly educated, whether through high schools, GED programs, or colleges/universities we are opened to a new world. The best way to fight poverty is improving the education system offering more specific/hands on classes rather than teaching student how to take a test. When students succeed, our nation will succeed.

Works Cited

Mooney, Linda A, Knox, David, and Schacht, Caroline. Understanding Social Problems. Stamford: Cengage Learning. 2015. Print.

Boteach, Melissa, and Vallas, Rebecca. American Progress. Web. 2014.

Rozzi, Giulia. TakePart. Web. 2009


Drug Use Among Juveniles

Damian Anderson

Professor Virginia Jeronimus

Soci  331

1 May 2016

“Reducing Juvenile Drug Use”

Drug use among juvenile has been an unsettling trend for many years and continues to plague communities. It is only foolish to accept this as normal so therefore there needs to be some action to help reduce this terrible trend. The drugs used among juveniles include: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and alcohol (Siegel, Welsh, 400-401). What can be done in response?

The first question to be asked is, why do teens abuse drugs in the first place? The reasons care categorized as the following: social disorganization, peer pressure, family factors, genetic factors, emotional problems, problem behavior syndrome, and rational choice (Siegel, Welsh, 408-411). Along with these results, surveys revealed that over 57% of juveniles used due to wanting to have a good time, another 49% wanted to experiment with the drug, and 43% just wanted to get high (Siegel, Welsh, 407). Other reasons included: to relax, as a way to escape problems, frustrations, and coping with physical needs (Siegel, Welsh, 407).  Research has shown that youths dealing with drug abuse were introduced to substance abuse at an early age; researched showed some were getting drunk by the age of 8 (Siegel, Welsh, 411). The addiction help center cites the following as serious concerns of decriminalization: 1) individuals may engage in drug related behavior due to no legal prosecution, 2) treatment center are not large enough to handle the expected increase of addicts, 3) such decriminalization may push for legalization in other situations, and 4) street drugs prices may fall and many individuals can become tempted and want to experiment (Pros and Cons of Decriminalizing Drug Addiction, Addiction Help Center). With these rationales, it is rather difficult to support such notions a decriminalization.

Another method of treating the problem of juvenile drug use is through research based prevention programs. These research programs are designed for various ages and backgrounds to “boost protective factors and eliminate or reduce risk factors for drug use” (Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction, Drug Abuse).  The three types of programs which are: universal program, selective program, and indicated program (Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction, Drug Abuse).  Universal programs address the factors involved in juvenile drug use in a setting, such as workplace or school, selective programs pinpoint teens with factors that give them an increased drug use risk and indicated programs assist teens who have already suffered with drug use (Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction, Drug Abuse)

Prevention in the end is the best way to reduce juvenile drug abuse, as by limiting drug use among juveniles would greatly reduce the problem. It would be best for community leader to introduce a program that educates specifically on the dangers and risk taken in place as well as local treatment centers. By being specific with facts and true stories regarding drug use, teen’s eyes may be opened and a new perspective may be born.

Works Cited

Seigal, Larry J. and Welsh, Brandon G. Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice and Law. Cengage Learning. 2015. Print

Addiction Help Center. Pros and Cons of Decriminalizing Drug Addiction. Web.

National Institute of Drug Use. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addcition. Drug Abuse. Web.






Undertaker’s Last Match part 2

This is a dated piece I wrote for a friend of mine last year around August. These were concept I had concerning Undertaker’s last match in the WWE. Enjoy!

Now we are at Survivor Series! Everyone entrances are normal except for The Undertaker, and of course his entrance is last. Since this is his last match the entrance has to be big and unforgettable. His best entrance by far, was wrestle mania 29, with the souls of past victims reaching up towards him. This time when we hear that gong, we see The Undertaker sitting on a throne-like structure with his druid walking slowly by the side of it. They stop at the top of the entrance for a pause and we hear a familiar sound.

Bike Engine revs up. They remove the large cloth tarp covering the “throne” and reveal a motorcycle (custom made with Undertaker Cross on the front) and the music switches from the gong to the Ministry of Darkness music (because it was so epic) and Taker makes cruises to the ring. Now don’t get confused, he isn’t the American Badass but a mixture of it and the Dead Man.  It his last ride…so to speak.

Now here is the difficult part, the match itself. You have to ask yourself who is going under first. The question that needs to be asked is whose career suffers because of the first pin fall. If we are looking at the Veterans team, we know that any of them can be pins and it has not a negative light on their career or persona. There are two in which may not compete again and those are Undertaker and Rhyno.  But I don’t see Rhyno being the center of attention.

The match will start off with Owens and Cena.  They do their back forth punches, Owen whips Cena into his corner and they make frequent tags to keep Cena confused on who the legal man actually. Eventually Gallows becomes the legal man and lead Cena away from the ropes and they have their brawling time.  After about the ten minute mark, Cena begins his four moves of doom sequence. As he runs to the ropes to perform his flyer shoulder Owens enters and hit Cena with a thunderous Pop-Up Power Bomb. Gallows then pins Cena for the first elimination.  It’s a shock but it solidified the New Era immediately.

Without wasting time Rhyno charges and Gores Gallows. Once Rhyno reaches his feet he runs toward Slater on the apron and Gores him through the ropes. Cue the ECW chants.  A brawl breaks on the outside. The ref begins counting to ten but when the mayhem going on (wrestlers sliding in and out of the ring), he just gives up shrugs his shoulders. Rhyno and Gallows enter the ring.

From this point on, the match will just take its natural course but here are some other spots that would enhance the match:

Team Veteran

  • AJ Styles goes for Phenomenal Forearm but is hit with a Code Breaker from Jericho, then followed by an RKO.
  • Slater goes to top for high risk, but Undertaker surprises him with a choke slam from the turnbuckle to the announcer’s table
  • Baron Corbin begins to perform End of Days on Orton but is surprised by Miz from behind with a Skull Crushing Finale.
  • Undertaker does his suicide dive on New Era on the outside
  • Rhyno gores Owens through the barricade

New Era

  • Baron Corbin performs End of Days on Miz from the top turnbuckle
  • Owens reverses Undertaker’s Old School into a power bomb.
  • Anderson and Gallows perform their finisher on the floor on Orton (Concussion storyline continues from summer slam) and is eliminated shortly afterward.
  • Rhyno is crouched in the corner waiting for Slater to get to his feet, Rhyno charges and Slater dodges, hit the ropes and hits his one gore on Rhyno.
  • Orton prepares an RKO on Anderson whom duck out the way only to get by a boot from Gallows.

The order of elimination for the Veterans doesn’t matter as long as Undertaker is their final member. However, for New Era the order of elimination is as follows:

  1. Anderson
  2. Gallows
  3. Styles
  4. Owens

The final two members are Baron and Slater. Slater has spent a good part of the match squirming out of the way, and having little in-ring time ability until now. Undertaker’s body is wearing down after the all the chaos that this match is brought form the competitors.  Slater tries to go for a low blow but undertaker catches his arm, twists it and does an old school on Slater. As Undertaker catches his balance and rests himself on the ropes, Slater crawls to the rope and tags in Baron. Baron runs toward Undertaker to hopefully catch him off balance but instead is scooped up and is dropped face first on the turnbuckle. Undertaker does his usual running big boot, which sends Baron to the outside. Slater then comes from behind the Undertaker but is dumped to outside where Baron catches him.

Undertaker then bounces on the ropes for momentum and looks as if he is going to perform another suicide dive, but Baron runs/slides in the ring and catches Taker with the end of days. Baron pins…2 count kickout. Undertaker is then slowly rising to his feet as Baron stands over him. Screaming and taunting the dead man. He grabs the Undertaker by the hair and lifts him up only to have Taker scoop up Baron into a tombstone piledriver. It’s a two count, and Baron, as quickly as he can rolls out of the ring. Slater then gets tagged in.

He whips taker in the turnbuckle and attempts to splash him but Taker catches him. When Taker attempts to slam Slater but holds on to the turnbuckle padding until it rips off exposing the steel. Undertaker then charges into the turnbuckle across the ring and crushes Slater. As Taker begins his corner strike, Slater reverses, duck under and begins his own strikes on the dead man. This is where Slater will actually gain some momentum as he will use successful offense on Undertaker. He whips Undertaker into the ropes and hit him with a spinning heel kick and continues on using Arial moves including his Flying sleeper slam. Undertaker eventually has enough of it and goes for a choke slam and as Slater goes in the air, he reverses the choke slam into a PayDirt (a move from his Nexus days). He goes for a pin.



As the ref bring his down for a 3 Baron pulls Slater off and give Slater an End of Days. He screams at Slater about knowing his place, the dead man is mine. He then throws Slater outside the ring, and waits patiently at his respective corner, waiting for the 10 count from the ref to eliminate Slater. Once the ten count is up Baron enters the and goes for a pin, but Undertaker pulls Baron in for the Hell’s Gates. Undertaker had played possum to lure Baron in. However, Baron is able to reach the ropes. The two then reach their feet are face to face. Cue the “this is awesome chants.” The two then wrestle for another 5-8 minutes, with plenty of close calls and finisher reversals.  Baron kicks out of a tombstone and a choke slam. Undertaker then whips Baron into the corner with the exposed steel and charges him to do a corner splash.  Baron however steps forward and catches under taker and lands a corner version of End of Days where Undertaker’s face smashes into the exposed steel.  Baron immediately takes the dead man down to a pin but its only a two count.

Frustrated Baron scoots himself to a corner post.  He just stares at the prone dead man. He scream just stay down, you’re done. Accept it.” Undertaker attempts his signature sit up but he isn’t able to do it, even after several attempts. Instead he crawls to the ropes, and uses the ropes to get to his feet. Shaking his head and laughing at undertaker’s frailty, Baron stands to his soon afterward. The Undertaker pauses as he reaches his feet and looks at himself. He is broken and bruised; head is bleeding from the turnbuckle. His body simply can’t go on much longer, and he accepting it. The audience cheers his name, as his eyes glaze over the arena and he…smiles.  The camera zooms in on his now Mark Callaway’s face, and says thank you! He turns to Baron, and marches straight toward him. Baron aggressively props The Undertaker into the End of Days position but instead, has the undertaker in a tombstone position. He cries out “Rest in Peace ” and drops The undertaker on his head and pins him.


Baron leaves the ring celebrating as The Undertaker slowly rises to his feet. He looks around the arena and repeating “thank you.” One last PPV Undertaker pose and the show ends with a gong.

That’s how I would book his final match. Was it terrible or a success? Personally I think it is a success, it’s a match with huge impact on a major storyline, its packed with emotion and close finishes, and possibly open up several story lines.  Then and finally then, The Undertaker can rest in peace.

Undertaker’s Last Match Pt. 1

This is a dated piece I wrote for a friend of mine last year around August. These were concept I had concerning Undertaker’s last match in the WWE. Enjoy!

Undertaker’s final match has been a hot topic for a number of years. There were serious claims that once the streak died, then the undertaker’s career was over however he has competed at the past two wrestle manias against the like of Shane McMahon and Bray Wyatt.  The man is in his early 50’s and won’t be able to continue much longer despite what the fans believe, and it will soon be time to hang up the old boots, and rope, and trench coat, and cowboy hat, and that motorcycle. What would be the best final match for the dead man?

It isn’t Undertaker vs. Sting, and it isn’t even at Wrestle Mania! Oh, the blasphemy. Sting is nearly 60 and Taker is, as mentioned early, in his 50s wouldn’t be ideal for such a match. It would be the same as watching two grandfathers grapple at a family reunion.  It just wouldn’t work at this point in time.

The undertaker’s last match should be the first official match in the WWE. Wait, do you mean have undertaker wrestle at survivor series? Yes, I do. Do you want Undertaker to participate in a Survivor Series Match? Yes, I do. Now before everyone becomes disgusted with the idea, let me explain everything to you.

To have it at survivor series is just the smart move to play. To begin and end on the same PPV event is just poetic in the rawest form. Wrestle Mania was undertaker’s show until he lost to Brick Lesbo.  Once the steak ended, Taker’s entitlement to the show ended. Sure he can still compete on there but it is no longer as exciting as when the streak was being defended. Second, Undertaker is at the point where a singles match isn’t going to work for his benefit. His body is wrecked and age is playing a significant role on him. Having him work with several guys, gives him the opportunity to rest while provide burst of energy.  Thus, a benefit to himself and the audience.

The match would essentially be the new era vs the veterans, and while it seems to be a NEXUS vs. WWE or a Main Event Mafia vs. TNA rip off it would be handled much more differently. First, the new era stars wouldn’t be warring against WWE but rather the spotlight/disrespect. The company has always had a tendency to focus on their past stars over the current or future. For example, people were more excited about the returns of Dudleys, Rhyno, and Orton than the current product. Not saying the audience but management. They decide it is their time to rise up against the veterans and declare there is a change coming to the WWE, that the new era will be the only era, or possibly the “surviving era.” Now this group of guys would primarily be heel. Which would include: AJ Styles, Kevin Owens, Baron Corbin, Carl Anderson,  Luke Gallows and Health Slater. Yes, I am breaking them up as they are divided by eras, plus Rhyno is running for office so he doesn’t have much in-ring time left. Of course this starts off as a mutual split with no “backstabbing.”

Team WWE will consist of John Cena, Randy Orton, Chris Jericho, Dolph Ziggler, The Miz, and…Brock Lesnar. First I am fully aware that I misspelled Lesnar’s name, secondly the heels on team Veteran will play more of an anti-role as they just want to put the new era “punks” in their place and thirdly where is the Undertaker. Originally Undertaker isn’t scheduled for the match, and he is brought in as a plan B (as HHH would say).

Now this “rivalry” begins several months before November, as you would of course want to build to the event to be steady and not rushed.  Instead of usually attacking superstars, the new era stars just use their mic skills to create tension. Now not all of them are mic professionals so this will give them an opportunity to develop more. For example, the new era may Cena and Orton as people who have used their backstage “power” to ensure their spot, while chris Jericho is nothing more than a part time has been, and the like of ziggler and Miz are after thoughts of the company. They keep pursuing a match to show their capability of being the major stars of wrestling today. Notice it isn’t WWE they want to be known for, but wrestling in general. These heels could care less about the fans, the wwe or even the titles that currently hold, but just are just testimony of how great they are. Eventually this leads to several matches including KO betraying his best bud Jericho in a number one contender’s title match, and Orton being screwing over in a match against AJ Styles. Not long after this backstage brawls begin but not team Veterans but on those who support the team. The New Era attacks Enzo and cass, Michael Cole, HHH and Rene Young. This is when team Veteran realize they need someone brutal and each of them have deep pockets.

While New Era is doing a promo on their superiority, they mention that no star of the past stand a chance against them.  They joke on Austin, Rock, Goldberg, HBK, Edge, and other major stars. In all of this Slater is silent, he is the one that is clearly troubled by all of this. He does mention that they should be careful of what they want, because he knows firsthand what stars of the past can do. He mentions being beat by past stars like Vader, and Psycho Sid. Baron screams for him to choose his alliance and shut his mouth. KO reminds Slater of being forgotten about in the draft, being unused for years, and being seen as a joke. This is what turns him to more of heel style. Slater smiles.  “I choose my era. The New Era. Because we ruling the wrestling world now.  Let’s do what Nexus couldn’t do. No one can stop us. WWE has no one else.”

Enter Brock Lesnar.

New Era instantly panics and prepares themselves for the beast. He clears the ring by throwing KO and AJ over the top rope, clothes lines Baron and Gallows, and finishes with an F-5 to Anderson. Slater then manages a low blow. New Era then ambushed Lesnar with stomps, until Lesnar gets back to his feet and begins his offensive until another low blow. And he goes down again, but Team Veterans come to his rescue.  They manage to make New Era retreat and while one the ramp Rhyno stares directly at Slate “GORE! GORE! GORE!” Team Veterans then raise their hands in unity and a momentary victory. HHH then comes out and announces the New Era gets what they want.

A match.

At Survivor Series.

And HHH creates a stipulation, if New Era loses they will be stripped of all their titles. They angrily respond with yelling.  Now you may ask why are they so upset about losing titles if they said titles/championships don’t matter. Simply, champions make more money and are considered more prestigious. The match is set at survivor series.

About a month before Survivor Series, AJ styles challenges to a steel cage match on RAW to prove that Lesnar is a star of the past and both teams are banned from ring side. Lesnar accepts (I know this is a long shot as Lesnar doesn’t do matches on a “free” basis, but A.J could challenge his manhood by calling his a coward). This cage match is different though, it resembles more of a hell in the cell because it has a top.  Both men are in the ring as the cage lowers, and AJ smiles. Out of the audience comes New Era, they slide into the ring with weapons, (lead pipes, steel chairs, ect.) They lock in the cage and destroy Lesnar with chair shots and finishers. He is a bloody mess, and for the first time Lesnar is the victim and is “broken.” Team Veteran is unable to get into the ring and the New Era taunts them as they slightly raise the cage to simply roll Lesnar out. The Veteran help Lesnar to his feet as the medical them rolls him out halfway up the ramp at that time he stop them and begins marching back to the ring. At this point the crowd is erupting, however Lesnar is stumbling and wobbling down the ramp and Heyman is pleading for him to stop. Lesnat eventually collapses. New Era raise their hand in victory.

Time to play the game. HHH comes out and is pissed. HE looks and the ring and shakes his head. But then he smiles and says, “There is always a plan B.”

Gong. Lights out.

Undertaker appears on the rampway. And that how Raw ends. The next day WWE.com publishes and article that Lesnar will not be cleared to wrestle due to concussions and other injuries, and that The Undertaker is replacing Lesnar in the match.

I’m sure people might be upset because they want to see Lesnar in the match but Lesnar isn’t a WWE guy, he is a Lesnar guy. He is there for the love of being paid, not the love of the WWE. And that is okay. This can also set up a rivalry between AJ and Lesnar for WrestleMania. Don’t say you don’t want it. Don’t even think it.

On Smack down New Era is mad about the change because it wasn’t in the original agree mend to face The Undertaker , and that the Veterans should just compete with a man down. However Baron Corbin speaks up and states, “I’m okay with sending Mark (Undertaker’s real name) back to the retirement home.” Silence. “I’m okay with the grandpa of WWE kissing the bottom of my feet. As long as there is another stipulation to the match. I want Undertaker’s career on the line!”  Fans boo. “Cry all you want, but he is nothing but another minor foot note in WWE next the likes of us. After Survivor Series, Mark won’t be known for wrestle manias, title reigns, or his 12 minutes entrances. He will only be known as some guy who lost to Baron Corbin.” The disrespect brings Undertaker out to the ring only to say, “Done.”

The next few weeks leading up to Survivor Series, WWE will be highlighting Taker’s accomplishments, his impact on the company, stars he has influenced and perspectives from wrestlers he has defeated. There should even be segment where an announcer speaks to wrestlers who have been able to defeat him and how they were able to accomplish this. On the final show before Survivor Series, Undertaker makes an appeared and takes the mic. He explains that he has been a WWE guy and that this is his yard. He mentions all of his foes in which he vanquished and reminisces on his accomplishments. And states that he will not let the like of Baron Corbin or other of the New Era to be victorious.  His career stated at Survivor Series, but he will ensure it will not end there. The Undertaker will Survive.

Stay tuned for the match.

In a few days.

Legal Issues in Departments

Departments and Legal Issues

Damian Anderson

Columbia College

             There are several basics types of tort which include: negligence, intentional, and constitutional (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). A tort can be defined as “a private injury inflicted on one person by another person for which the injured party may sue in a civil action” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). Some of the action brings about “an award of money damages” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). Negligence torts revolve around a person’s reasonableness, or the “standard of the reasonable prudent person” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). Within this type of tort, the defendant is only liable if they could’ve anticipated that the acts or omission of acts “would result in injury to another” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). With intentional torts, the action surrounding the circumstances involves voluntary action such as assault, fraud, and false arrest (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). Constitutional torts revolve around the Constitutional rights, privileges, and immunizations that are violated by criminal justice practitioners (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).

Cops actually have several constitutional right such as the following: 1)free speech, right to privacy, searches and seizures (following probable cause),  and a right against self incrimination (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). A police officer is actually liable for “damage caused by their actions” (Swason, Territo, Taylor, 2012). These damages must have been caused by actions in which exceeded the limited of an officer’s permissible behavior (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).

Vicarious liability is defined as “a legal doctrine known as, respondent superior imposing liability on supervisors and manager for their tortuous conduct of their employees” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). This doctrines have developed due to our industrial society and showed an effort to “allocate risk to those who could not afford to pay for the complaint of the damages” Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).  Examples of these include: 1) neglect hiring,  a department held liability for injuries of a individual by an officer whom was a bad hire, 2) negligent assignment, retention, and entrustment, an chief of police could be held responsible for damages by an officer who was required to be reassigned,  and 3) negligent direction and supervision,  when an supervisor chooses not to terminate a high risk situation involving an officer injuries civilians such as a high speed chase in a crowded downtown area (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).

The Supreme Court in several situations has ruled against many laws in which created an equal basis for straight as well as gay individuals. In regards to police departments, the supreme court has helped create standards to be upheld on the line or respect and discrimination. For example, department now enforce discriminary actions for those harassing an individual for their sexual preference or gender (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).









Department Budgets

Department Budgets

Damian Anderson

Columbia College

             A grievance is defined as “a complaint or an expression of dissatisfaction by an employee with respect to some aspect of employment (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). The grievance procedure involves several steps of the process. These steps are as followed: 1) the member presents their first grievance to their supervisor within 5 days of the event that lead to the grievance, 2) if a grievance isn’t settled in the first step then it is reduced to writing by the member and taking it to the division commander, 3) if the grievances aren’t settled in the second step, the grievance shall be forwarded to the chief of police within 5 days, 4) if the response by the Chief of Police is found to be unsatisfactory then the member can forward the grievance to the city manager within 5 days, and 5) if the member still is unsatisfied with the settlement then an arbiter will be selected for a hearing, and their decision shall be final (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).

A budget cycle is a “four step, sequential process repeated annually in the government” (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012). The steps are as followed: 1) preparation and submission of the budget by all of a city or country’s department, which includes getting input from stakeholders, 2) review and approval by the legislative body, 3) execution, doing the things for which public funds have been appropriated, and 4) audit and evaluation (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).

When conducting an audit, financial auditors “collect and examine records and reports, conduct interviews,” in order to determine any of the following: 1)required financial records and reports were made in a timely manner and complete form, 2) public funds were subject to waste, fraud or abuse, 3) unauthorized charges to the budget or reimbursement from the budget was made, 4) computations are accurate, 5) unauthorized transfers from one budget category to another were made, 6) procurement requirements were followed and 7) expenditures we war or less than the approved budget (Swanson, Territo, Taylor, 2012).  In regards to the proposed audit, the first thing that would need to be reviewed would be the statistics of DWIs in the area. I would want to see if there was a need for a grant in that community regarding the issue at hand.  The statistics documentation would include arrests records, court documentation, and violators criminal information. From this we could see the amount of repeat offenders and if the grant would actually be successful/useful.



Works Cited

Swanson, Charles R., Territo, Leonard, and Taylor, Robert W. (2012) Police Administration: Structures, Processes, and Behaviors. (8th ed). Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Print.

Death Investigations

Death Investigations

Damian Anderson

Columbia College


The darkest part of working in law enforcement is dealing with death and conducting investigation in such crime scenes. The sights and smells alone create terrors, that encompassed with the emotion and stress involved investigation create a nightmare of a time. But what all does the investigation deal with? What information is to be looked at and exposed?

There are a number of different modes of death they include: 1) accidental, natural, suicide, and murder (Lyman, 2014). In a sense, it is either natural or unnatural. When murder occurs, it is referred to as a homicide. The term homicide includes a number of other characteristics. These include manslaughter, which can be either voluntary or involuntary and involves killing someone with no planning or premeditation. Voluntary for example, may include a husband killing his cheating wife after catching her with another man, which in done in the heat of the passion (Lyman, 2014). Involuntary is normally death resulting to severe negligence (Lyman, 2014). Murder of course is categorized as either first degree (planned) or second degree (unplanned killing while committing another unlawful act) (Lyman, 2010).

The preliminary investigation involves a lot of responsibility of the arriving officers. They can often be unexpected event when arriving to a seen such as encountering a shooter or determining victims.  Elements of the preliminary investigation include: establishing a chain of custody, note taking, identifying victims, and dealing with a deceased or living victims (Lyman, 2014).

When an officer encounters a victim that believes that he or she is not going to live they make a statement referred to as a dying declaration (Legal Information Institute). This can be admissible as evidence if: 1) unavailability of declarant, 2) statement is being offered in either a criminal prosecution for murder or civil action, 3) death was believed to be imminent upon declaration and 4) the statement must relate to the cause or the circumstances of what was believed to be impending death (Lyman, 2014).

After a person dies the corpse goes through 5 stages of decomposition. They are as followed: fresh stage, putrefaction stage, black putrefaction stage, butyric fermentation stage and the dry decay stage (Lyman, 2014). Depending on the body’s stage status, the officers and medical staff can easier access the time of death. Another method is using insect and bugs that are found on and/or inside the body. (Genge, 2002). This study is referred to as forensic entomology.

Guns play a role in a vast number of deaths each year. An investigator can determine the distance in which the shooter shot the victim from. Distances can range anywhere from direct on skin (referred to as direct contact) to a several feet away (Lyman, 2014). Important features involved in investigating gun related crimes include: blood splatter, smudging (resulting ring of gunpowder around wound), and tattooing (tiny pinpoint hemorrhages deposited into skin on discharge) (Lyman, 2014).

There are more bizarre and odd death circumstances that come under investigation: autoerotic death and suicide. Autoerotic death is when a “body is discovered in a partially suspended position, nude or in feminine attire” (Lyman, 2014). These are often ruled as accidental as it is assumed that the victim was trying to reach high sexual pleasure by cutting off air supply to reach a more intense orgasm (Lyman, 2014). Suicide is regarded as the taking of one’s own life. It is closely linked to depression is the result of 83% of gun related deaths (Lyman, 2014). Investigators will conduct a reconstruction of the scenario to determine that the suicide was a plausible death.

Death investigation is a difficult task to undertake. There are numerous factors and elements that can either provide clarity or confusion. However over time the new investigation methods such as entomology, blood splatter, and new laws have assisted law enforcement to provide more thorough and successful investigations.

Works Cited:

Genge, N.E. (2002) The Forensic Casebook. Random House Publishing Group. Print.

Lyman, Michael D. (2014). Criminal Investigation: The Art and Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall. Print.

Legal Information Institute. (n.d.) Dying Declaration. Cornell University Law School. Web. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/dying_declaration